The Median Empire / Kurdish History

Median Empire  625 BC–549 BC

Median Empire  600BC

A symbol of the God Ahura Mazda the allmighty sour masta sour Yogurd in Zaraoastranian faith

they founded the kingdom Media in the north of the present Iran.  The kingdom existed at 728 BC until 550 BC.  Their first king was Phraortes, He united the tribes drove away the Assyriërs. He was followed through its son Deioces. Deioces Ruled 675-646 BC he was the  founder of the kingdom Media  and his capital Ecbatana.  In 614 BC he has defeated the Assyriërs definitive and destroyed their capital Assur.  In 612 BC he has destroyed the city Nineve.  The Avoided became in 550 v. Chr. report through the Achaemeniden under leadership of Cyrus II.
The language that they spoke be part of the Iraanse branch of the Indo-European scores and was relative with the Old-Persian.
The Kurds believe that they include descendants of the Medes According to Herodotus, "the Medes were called anciently by all people Aryans; but when Media, the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their name. Such is the account which they themselves give." Medea is the daughter of the Colchian King Aeëtes in the Greek myth, Jason and the Argonauts. There is not a clear Indo-European etymology for the name of Medes, Mâda.

Gudea ruler of Lagash in Mesopotamia (2143-2124 BCE) mentioned "Mada" as a land that grains grow in it. Šulgi ruler of third Ur dynasty (2095-2048 BCE) built "bád mada ki" that means wall of Media.
"ki" is a descriptive symbol that comes after geographical places. A lot of translators translate "mada" generally into land. "mada" uses as a suffix before names of lands that are located in west of Iranian plateau like "Martu", "Subartu", "Anšan", "Kimaš", "Gutium" and etc. "Šu-Sin" ruler of third Ur dynasty (2038-2030 BCE), reported his military expedition to lands and cities of Zagros, and pillage of gold from "Mada". Translation of "Mada" as a desert is Assyrian record

The Medes, people of the Mada (the Greek form Μδοι is Ionic for Μδοι), appear in Assyrian record first in 836 BC. Earliest records show that Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser III received tribute from the "Amadai" in connection with wars against the tribes of the Zagros. His successors undertook many expeditions against the Medes (Madai).

In 715 BC and 713 BC, Sargon II of Assyria subjected them up to "the far mountain Bikni" (Damavand or Alvand) and the borders of the desert. If the account of Herodotus is to be trusted, the Median dynasty descends from Deioces (Daiukku) a prince from Diauehi and a Median chieftain in the Zagros, who, along with his kinsmen, was transported by Sargon to Hamath (Haniah) in Syria in 715 BC. This Daiukku seems to have originally been a governor of Mannae, subject to Sargon prior to his exile.

In spite of repeated rebellions by the early chieftains against Assyrian rule, the Medes paid tribute to Assyria under Sargon's successors, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal whenever these kings marched against them. Assyrian forts located in Median territory at the time of Esarhaddon's campaign (ca. 676) included Bit-Parnakki, Bit-kari and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin). n't correct because all of lands uses after "Mada" are located in mountains and plateau.


The Median Emperor Cyxsares

Cyaxares or Hvakhshathra (Old Persian: Uvaxštra, Greek Κυαξάρης; r. 625 - 585 BC), the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media.

He reorganized and modernized the Median Army, then joined with King Nabopolassar of Babylonia. This alliance was formalized through the marriage of Cyaxares daughter, Amytis with Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II, the king who constructed the Hanging Gardens of Babylon as a present for his Median wife to help with her homesickness for the mountainous country of her birth.

These allies overthrew the Assyrian Empire and destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC. After this victory, the Medes conquered Northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and the parts of Asia Minor east of the Halys River, which was the border established with Lydia after a decisive battle between Lydia and Media, the Battle of Halys ended with an eclipse on May 28, 585 BC.

The conflict between Lydia and the Medes was reported by Herodotus as follows:

"A horde of the nomad Scythians at feud with the rest withdrew and sought refuge in the land of the Medes: and at this time the ruler of the Medes was Cyaxares the son of Phraortes, the son of Deïokes, who at first dealt well with these Scythians, being suppliants for his protection; and esteeming them very highly he delivered boys to them to learn their speech and the art of shooting with the bow. Then time went by, and the Scythians used to go out continually to the chase and always brought back something; till once it happened that they took nothing, and when they returned with empty hands Cyaxares (being, as he showed on this occasion, not of an eminently good disposition) dealt with them very harshly and used insult towards them. And they, when they had received this treatment from Cyaxares, considering that they had suffered indignity, planned to kill and to cut up one of the boys who were being instructed among them, and having dressed his flesh as they had been wont to dress the wild animals, to bear it to Cyaxares and give it to him, pretending that it was game taken in hunting; and when they had given it, their design was to make their way as quickly as possible to Alyattes the son of Sadyattes at Sardis. This then was done; and Cyaxares with the guests who ate at his table tasted of that meat, and the Scythians having so done became suppliants for the protection of Alyattes.

After this, since Alyattes would not give up the Scythians when Cyaxares demanded them, there had arisen war between the Lydians and the Medes lasting five years; in which years the Medes often discomfited the Lydians and the Lydians often discomfited the Medes (and among others they fought also a battle by night): and as they still carried on the war with equally balanced fortune, in the sixth year a battle took place in which it happened, when the fight had begun, that suddenly the day became night. And this change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians laying down as a limit this very year in which the change took place. The Lydians however and the Medes, when they saw that it had become night instead of day, ceased from their fighting and were much more eager both of them that peace should be made between them. And they who brought about the peace between them were Syennesis the Kilikian and Labynetos the Babylonian: these were they who urged also the taking of the oath by them, and they brought about an interchange of marriages; for they decided that Alyattes should give his daughter Aryenis to Astyages the son of Cyaxares, since without the compulsion of a strong tie agreements are apt not to hold strongly together.

Cyaxares died ten years after the battle and was succeeded by his son, Astyages, who was the maternal grandfather of Cyrus the Great through his daughter Mandane of Media.



Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as στυάγης - Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Akkadian: Ištumegu; Kurdish: Azhdihak or Ajdihak, Persian: Persian: ایشتوویگو (Ištovigu)), was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585 BCE-550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great.

His name derives from the Old Iranian Rishti Vaiga, which means "swinging the spear, lance-hurler."
Deioces  Prince of Media-Deported to Assyria in 715 BC
Childeren: Cyaxares King of Media-714 BC
Cyaxares King of Media -714BC
Children: Phraortes King of Media-675 BC

Phraortes King of Media
-675 BC

Children: Deioces King of Media-675-646 BC

Deioces King of Media-675-646 BC
Children: Phraortes II King of Media- Born 670 BC -Died (624 BC, ruled 646-624 BC Killed in battle with Assyrians)

Phraortes II King of Media
Born 670 BC
Cyaxares (Kyaxeres) King of Media- Born 645 BC-Died 584 BC, ruled 625-584

Cyaxares (Kyaxeres) King of Media-
Born 645 BC
Children: Astyages King of Media -Born 620 BC / Died ABT 554 BC, ruled 584-554 {1}
Children: Amytis Princess of Media - Born 625 BC {2}

Astyages King of Media -Born 620 BC - Died ABT 554 BC, ruled 584-554 {1}
Aryenis Princess of Lydia died- Married to Astyages after the battle with Lydia 28. May 585

Children: Mandane Princess of Media Born 595 BC – Deid ABT 554 BC (1)
Children: Amytis II Princess of Media Born ABT 585 BC – Deid ABT 554 BC

Mandane Princess of Media 595 BC - ABT 554 BC (1)
Marriage: Cambyses I King of Anshan Born 600BC – Deid ABT 554 BC
Children: Cyrus II the Great King of Persia Born Ruled 559-529 BC- Died 529 BC in Afghanistan

Amytis II Princess of Media Born ABT 585 BC – Died ABT 554 BC (2)
Marriage: Cyrus II the Great King of Persia
Children: Meroe Princess of Persia

Meroe Princess of Persia
Cambyses II King of Persia

Cyrus II the Great King of Persia Born Ruled 559-529 BC- Died 529 BC in Afghanistan
1. Marriage: Neithiyti Princess of Egypt Born 570 BC- Died ABT 530 BC
Atossa Princess of Persia
Artystone Princess of Persia

2. Marriage:
Cassandane Princess of Persia
Children: Cambyses II King of Persia
Children: Bardiya Prince of Persia

3. Marriage: Amytis II Princess of Media ABT 585 BC - ABT 554 BC
Children: Meroe Princess of Persia

Amytis Princess of Media - Born 625 BC {2}
Marriage: Nebuchadnezzar II King of Babylon Ruled 605-562
Children :
Eanna-shar-usur Prince of Babylon
Marduk-shum-usur Prince of Babylon

Marduk-nahin-ahhi Prince of Babylon
Mushezib Marduk Prince of Babylon


Astyages succeeded his father in 585 BCE, following the Battle of Pteria (Battle of Halys?), which ended a five-year war between the Lydians and the Medes. He inherited a large empire, ruled in alliance with his two brothers-in-law, Croesus of Lydia and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, whose wife, Amytis, Astyages' sister, was the queen for whom Nebuchadnezzar was said to have built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Married to Aryenis, the sister of King Croesus of Lydia, to seal the treaty between the two empires, Astyages ascended to the Median throne upon his father's death later that year. By her he had perhaps a daughter Amytis (same as Amytis above married to Nebuchadnezzar?) married to Cyrus the Great.

The reign of Astyages was noted for its both its stability and for the growth of the eastern prophet-based religion, Zoroastrianism, throughout his empire, at the same time that Croesus was patronizing notable western philosophers (Thales, Solon, Aesop, etc.), and Nebuchadnezzar was busily turning his city of Babylon into the greatest metropolis the world had yet seen.

After thirty-two years of relative stability, Astyages lost the support of his nobles during the war to his heroic grandson Cyrus, as attested to at length in the Cyropaeida of Xenophon, resulting in the formation of the Persian empire, which can be considered therefore a dynastic successor of the Medes.

Cyrus and Astyages in Herodotus

The account given by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus relates that Astyages had a dream in which his daughter, Mandane, gave birth to a son who would destroy his empire. Fearful of the dream's prophecy, Astyages married her off to Cambyses I of Anšan, who had a reputation for being a "quiet and thoughtful prince" and whom Astyages believed to be no threat.

When a second dream warned Astyages of the dangers of Mandane's offspring, Astyages sent his general Harpagus to kill the child, who was none other than Cyrus himself. Harpagus, unwilling to spill royal blood, gave the infant to a shepherd, Mitridates, whose wife had just given birth to a stillborn child. Cyrus was raised as Mitridates' own son, and Harpagus presented the stillborn child to Astyages as the dead Cyrus.

When Cyrus was found alive at age ten, Astyages spared the boy on the advice of his Magi, returning him to his parents in Anshan. Harpagus, however, did not escape punishment, as Astyages is said to have fed him his own son at a banquet.

Cyrus succeeded his father in 559, and in 553, on the advice of Harpagus, who was eager for revenge for being given the "abominable supper," Cyrus rebelled against Astyages. After three years of fighting, Astyages' troops mutinied during the battle of Pasargadae, and Cyrus conquered the Median's empire. Astyages was spared by Cyrus, and despite being taunted by Harpagus, Herodotus says he was treated well and remained in Cyrus' court until his death.

Rather than giving the popular mythology that Cyrus was suckled by a prostitute, Herodotus explains that the herdsman Mitridates lived with another of Astyages' slaves, namely a woman named 'Spaco,' which he explains is Median for prostitute.


The contemporary Chronicle of Nabonidus refers to the mutiny on the battlefield as the cause for Astyages' overthrow, but does not mention Harpagus by name. However, since Harpagus was Astyages' general at the battle of Pasargadae and his family were granted high positions in Cyrus' empire after the war, and since Harpagus went on to become Cyrus' most successful general, it is possible he had something to do with the mutiny against Astyages. Cyrus then went on to pillage Astyages' capital of Ecbatana.

Ancient sources agree that after Astyages was taken by Cyrus he was treated with clemency, though the accounts differ. Herodotus says that Cyrus kept  his grandfather Astyages at his court during the remainder of his life, while according to Ctesias, he was made a governor of a region of Parthia (northeastern Iran) and was later murdered by a political opponent, Oebaras. The circumstances of Astyages' death are not known.

After Astyages' overthrow, Croesus marched on Cyrus to avenge Astyages. Cyrus, with Harpagus at his side, defeated Croesus and conquered Lydia in 547 BCE.

Mandane of Mede (Kurd) Princess from Median Empire

The true first glance of love is unforgettable between lovers. The energy of love is like flame of fire for until eternity. The love story between Persian prince Cambyses and Kurdish Princess Mandane are one of those love stories to be remembered. The marriage produced thee most Nobel and honorable human being in the history of humanity. The Emperor is known as Cyrus the Great of Median Empire. The Emperor are known for his wisdom and declared of human right charter in the world for the first time.

The journey of life is full of surprises. Such was the case for young Mandane.  Born to the King of Kings, hers was a path of nobility, or so it began.  As a young child, her mother, Empress Aryenis, and her father, Emperor Astyages, known as Ahasuerus of the Median Empire, indulged her every whim.  She was their only daughter and they loved her dearly.  Many people might have fallen victim to indolence and gluttony had they been in her place, but not Mandane.  Hers was a character that was virtuous above all else, even as a child.

The year was 570 BC and before you begin to think these were a backward people, let me assure you this was not the case.  Mandane’s father, Emperor Astyages, was the son of Emperor Cyaxares I, the grandson of Diyako, the great founder of the Median Empire.  Diyako was renowned in his lands for his sense of justice.  He gained the trust of his people and was an elected leader of the Airyanem Vaejah people.  He was loved by his country which extended from the present day southern shore of the Black Sea and the Aran Province—the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, north all the way to present day Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan.  Theirs was a huge empire unlike any other known at that time and unlike any other since. 

Her mother, Empress Aryenis, was the daughter of King Alyattes and sister of Prince Croesus who ruled the land of the Lydian Empire. To say that Astyages was the King of Kings was no exaggeration, the Median Empire consisted of more than one hundred kingdoms once, all ruled by one Emperor.  His rise to power was unexpected; as the youngest son he was an unlikely heir to the throne.  But because each of his three older brothers went off on missions from whom they never returned, he was left to inherit leadership of the Empire.

It was in the summer that she saw Cambyses for the first time.  The summer heat forced people to seek the cooler breezes of the higher mountains which had started blowing in from the North. Mandane had spent the last four months at the smaller mountain palace at Alvand Mountain where she had always spent each of her fourteen summers.  Unlike the sprawling castle where she spent the majority of her time, this mountain estate was smaller and more of a home to her.

The palace and the castle complex were built by her great grandfather, Emperor Diyako more with security in mind. He built the castle on higher ground and in the strategic location called Ecbatana (meaning the place of meeting).  It is called that because it is the place where leaders of the Airyanem Vaejah nations met to combat Assyrian aggression. The location and the availability of resources made the place an excellent choice for the King of Kings, Diyako, after the people elected him to stop the Assyrians.

Ecbatana, capital of the Median Empire is beautifully situated at the foot of Mount Alvand where the Silk Road passes through. The Median dynasty ruled the Median Empire for one and half centuries. The Neo-Assyrian Empire does not make any reference to Ecbatana. It is possible that they never were able to penetrate east of the Alvand mountain chain after the establishment of the Median Empire. The royal fortress was a combination of castle, treasury, and military complex built on a hill and encircled by seven rings of walls. Each wall topped the one below it by the height of battlements designed to sustain a long siege. Such a fortress on a prominence circled by seven defense rings of walls with a formidable military force was representative of Median strongholds during the Neo-Assyrian conflict.

The castle was the place of the King of Kings court and his residence as well. The palace, however, was boring for Princess Mandane. She could not wait for the summer, to get out of palace and be free for a while as a young girl.

She loved the freedom she was given in these months as she and her governess, Magizadah, left the confines of her classroom and went on walks and picnics in the fields.  She especially loved the little lake which was just a short half-mile walk down the hill from the castle.  It was there, as she walked with a few servants through the fields of late blooming hollyhock and toadflax that she saw King Cyrus I’s courtiers coming up the path. Mandane was hidden from view behind a small berm and was able to watch the procession as it passed on the road toward the city.

Since early dawn noble guests had been arriving from all over the empire for the annual celebrations of the establishment of Median Empire which was took place at the time of the Zoroastrian religious festival.  Many of the attendees were kings from across the vast empire in attendance to pay tribute to Mandane’s father and celebrate the wealth of the regions.

 King Cyrus I of Anshan had property in Ecbatana because of his close relationship with the King of Kings of the Median Empire as consultant on the security of the nations. He was visiting at this time to escape the summer heat in Anshan and to do his business as well. He was getting old and wanted to introduce his son to the King of Kings as his successor in case he could no longer rule because of ill health or death.  He asked Cambyses to accompany him on this state visit to Ecbatana.

Prince Cambyses saw a small building close to a small lake before reaching the city. He asked his father’s permission to go with few guards to drink the water from cold springs by the lake. He would catch up later since the guards knew the road to the city. When they came closer to the lake they saw a beautiful young girl with a few servants in her retinue. He asked her permission to drink water from springs; permission was granted and he approached the girl’s company. He saw that she was dressed with silks from China and gold of Babylon, and was indeed the most beautiful girl he had ever seen. He said to her, “I am Prince Cambyses, son of Cyrus of Anshan.  May I have the honor to know you, young princess?”

The girl replied politely, “I am Princes Mandane of Mede, daughter of the King of Kings Astyages of Median Empire, and my nickname is Goli Kurdistan (“flower of Kurdistan”).  You can call me Goli. They looked at each other and fell in love in that first glance.

Cambyses was speechless for a moment and then bowed his head as is the custom of Airyanem Vaejah people paying respect to a woman. He said, “Goli, indeed you are much more beautiful than the Median Goli (a Median flower) and I wish to visit you again during our visit here.” While they were gazing at each with surprise and delight, the governess, Magizadah, approached Mandane.

Mandane said, “Governess Magizadah, this gentleman is Prince Cambyses, son of Cyrus of Anshan, asking permission to visit us again.

Governess Magizadah bowed her head to Prince Cambyses, son of Cyrus of Anshan, and said, “I must get the permission of Mandane’s mother, Queen of Media, and will let you know tomorrow.”

Prince Cambyses bowed his head and said then, “I hope to see you soon,” and he departed with his company. Mandane was very young; she had never seen a respectable person like him before. Indeed, that was her first love.

“Come away from there, you will be seen!” admonished Governess Magizadah.  It often seemed to Mandane that her governess was more preoccupied with propriety than with her educational duties.  Governess Magizadah was very prim and despised any hint of what she referred to as commonness in her young charge.  Mandane was well aware of this but couldn’t help herself.  She watched as the seemingly endless line of men and horses and servants wound up the path.  At the very end came an ornate carriage which held King Cyrus and the members of his court who were attending.

Governess Magizadah send a message to Mandane’s mother, Queen Aryenis about the meeting of Prince Cambyses, son of Cyrus of Anshan, and Mandane by the lake springs. She told her he wanted to return for a visit with us here. The Queen of Media send back a message telling Governess Magizadah that they were going to have a state dinner in honor of King Cyrus of Anshan. She would make sure Mandane would be there to meet Prince Cambyses and his family during the state dinner.

Mandane is one of those girls who should be remembered by humanity for her honor and wisdom. She was brought up by Queen Aryenis and King of Kings Astyages of the Median Empire. She was a descendent of the King of Kings Diyako; the founder of the Median Empire. Diyako earned his honors because of his justice as a judge even before he gained the trust of the people and was elected as a leader of the Airyanem Vaejah people.

Her mother, Queen Aryenis, daughter of King Alyattes and sister of King Croesus of Lydia, was very pleased to see her daughter’s happiness, particularly when Prince Cambyses I asked to marry her within a few days of their second meeting.

Prince Cambyses I first asked his own father’s permission to marry Princess Mandane; his father was glad to hear his request. He told Prince Cambyses I, “In our next meeting with the King of Kings Astyages, I will ask him for his daughter hand for you.”

There was a meeting between both families and then King Cyrus I spoke to the King of Kings Astyages. “Oh King of Kings of the Airyanem Vaejah nations, we are very proud to be here to renew our alliance as a relative and partner in the service of our nations. My son, Prince Cambyses I, wants to be your servant, and he wants you to accept him as your son. We are asking your permission to allow Princess Mandane to marry my son. As you are aware of our Parsu peoples’ blood relationship and our family connections, we will be honored to renew our family ties according to our people’s customs and traditions.

Astyages was very happy to hear the request and replied to King Cyrus I, “My friend, you and your Parsu people are the backbone of the Median Empire. I am very glad to see them be married.  It will strengthen and renew our family connections for generations to come; they can then be a united people for their own survival. I would like to consult my Queen and Mandane before saying yes. I will get back to you very soon.” After consultations with his Queen and Mandane and finding family acceptance, King of Kings Astyages called for a meeting of the families and told King Cyrus I and his son, Prince Cambyses I, in the present of Princess Mandane and her mother, Queen Aryenis, of his the family’s acceptance of the marriage. They announced the engagement to the palace and publicly. The people in the Median Empire were very happy for the coming marriage.

The wedding of Princess Mandane was celebrated throughout the Kingdom of Anshan. After few months Prince Cambyses I’s father, King Cyrus I, passed away and Cambyses I become King of Anshan.

King Cambyses I of Anshan was very pleased. He was honored by the King of Kings of the Median Empire agreeing to the marriage to his daughter. He was pleased about his kingdom’s increased security by having Mandane Queen Consort of Anshan. The young family was happy and planned for the future.

Queen Mandane was told the history of the families by her father. She learned that both Madayu and Parsu were the children of Matiene, the hero of the Airyanem Vaejah people. He told Mandane that the great grandfather of her husband, King Cambyses I of Anshan, helped his great grandfather in the establishment of the Median Empire. We are originally related. Respect your husband and be a good Queen of Anshan. The father reminded her about honor, justice, truth and good before her departure to Anshan. He said Auramazdâha (God) will help you when you help the people of Anshan.

King Cambyses I and Queen Mandane held court at Anshan and served their people daily. Both the King and Queen were popular among the people. The people loved them because of their justice.

The two young people were becoming more acquainted with each other, day by day. Their love for each other was very strong. In their private times, away from the court, they began to learn from each other about their heritage, from what they had heard from their families and teachers.

She became pregnant and gave birth to a son in 569 BC. They named him Cyrus after his grand- father.  The King and Queen were very happy about the birth and reported it to the families. But after few weeks they learned that the Median army was in Anshan.

Hamma Mirwaisi is the author of the forthcoming book, “RETURN OF THE MEDES”.  Born in Iraqi, Kurdistan, he is a US citizen; he currently resides in the United States; is an electrical engineer by trade; and has consulted on multiple projects in the United States, Iraq and Turkey.


The story of Emperor Uvaxshtrahyâ (Cyaxares I) of the Median Empire

The son of Emperor Phraorte (Fravartish I), Emperor Uvaxstra or Cyaxaras [56], became the third Emperor of the Median Empire after Emperor Ashurbanipal of Assyrian Empire killed his father. He was also known as Hvakhshathra (Hva-kh-sha-thra), meaning he is the Shah of Shah's. The Median Empire originated the name because, for the first time, the Median Emperor ruled over many different nations with different religions, each of which had its own Shah. They, however, only paid taxes to the central government in Ecbatana.

Xasro (from the Kurdish) or Kayxosrew (Uvaxstra, 625-585 BC) is another title, meaning, "He is better." He made the mistake initially of continuing the war with Assyria, but he stopped when he realized he was not succeeding. During the Assyrian war, his father's army was supported by the Scythian people under King Madius, son of Protohyes [57]. They remained with Emperor Cyaxaras after his father was killed, but when he stopped the war, they followed him to Ecbatana. In Ecbatana, the Scythians seized power and took over the Median Empire, forcing the young Emperor Cyaxares to submit to King Madius of Scythia, another branch of the Airyanem Vaejah nations (653-625 BC). Madius declared himself King of Kings of the Median Empire and he ruled the Empire for many years. His rule and his army later brutalized the Median people; they treated the population badly and in their own homeland.

The Median and Assyrian war

Emperor Cyaxares was the most brilliant politician, organizer, planner, and religious and military leader of the Median Empire. He built many religion temples for Anahita [60] throughout the Median Empire. He immediately reorganized and modernized the Median army. Learning from past mistakes, his military reputation exceeded those who preceded him. He was the first to divide the military into separate units: archers, spearmen and cavalry. He trained his army in military procedures and in how to command; the army learned techniques on how to be effective in war. The military became organized as a military force with discipline, instead of being a mob as they were before. The military was divided into special units of warriors. Those who were to attack in front and be ready to die for the cause were called Bears ("Hurt or Kurd") followed by Tiger ("Elam") and leopard ("Parsa").

He never favored the Median people over any other branches of the Airyanem Vaejah people. He always said that unity among the Airyanem Vaejah nations was the key to its survival in the presence of Semitic aggression. He even brought back the Scythians to join him in the war against the Assyrian Empire.

He realized that war needs alliances and logistic supplies to achieve a successful result. After all, he was preparing to attack a large empire with much experience in war. The Assyrian Empire has been around for a long time; they were a force not easily defeated. He was a determined leader and desired vengeance for his father's death. He called on the Madayu relatives from Parsu, Scythian, Parthian, and other branches from the Airyanem Vaejah nation. They joined him because they also had been abused by the Assyrian Empire.

He realized that King Nabopolassar [61] of Babylon also hated the Assyrian Empire even though they were both Semitic peoples, because Assyria abused every nation in the region, even one of their own. He formalized the alliance by having his daughter, princess Amytis (Hamy-tis, meaning "the beauty all yours"), marry Prince Nebuchadnezzer II, son of King Nabopolassar.

The alliance attacked the Assyrian Empire from the north and south simultaneously. They entered Nineveh, the capital, in 612 BC, three years after my birthday; Astyages was born five years before me. The Median and Babylonian armies rooted out all Assyrian resistance in the region.

After the defeat of the Assyrian Empire, the Babylonians added western territories to their Empire and Media added territories east of the Halys River. The region had peace for a time after the Assyrians were no longer a major military force in the region.